The first case of Alzheimer’s disease was defined and reported in 1907 by the German scientist, Dr. A. Alzheimer. His studies have shown that this is the main cause of dementia in the elderly. The plaques which appear in the brains of individuals who suffer AD are mostly constituted by the Amyloidβ protein (Aβ). Aβ is a peptide which consists of 40 or 42 (43) amino acids, and reports show that this is cleaved by β- and γ- secretase from the amyloid precursor protein. APP is a trans-membrane protein consisting of 695, 751, or 770 amino acids. Reports have shown many variants of Aβ exist in the culture supernatant from APP transfected mouse neuroblastoma cells.
In 1995, a dominant and differential deposition of distinct β amyloid peptide species, Aβ(N3pE), was found in senile plaques by Saido et al. This modified molecule, starting at the 3rd amino terminal residue, glutamate, was discovered to convert to pyroglutamate through intramolecular dehydration.
In 2001, Edward H. Koo et al. found that the secretion of Aβ42 is reduced by the effect of NSAIDs, while the secretion of Aβ38 increased. NSAIDs is attracting attention as a γ-secretase modulation. Aβ38 and Aβ42 have become important markers as indicators for the effect of NSAIDs.
Oligomerization of Aβ42 is considered as an early event in Alzheimer’s diseases. Irie et al. have proposed the toxic conformer with a turn at positions 22 and 23 in Aβ42 aggregates. This toxic Aβ conformer could form stable and neurotoxic oligomers. Antibody 24B3, highly specific for Amyloidβ Toxic Oligomer, has been developed.
ELISA Kits for Amyloid-beta
- Human Amyloidβ (1-38) (Full-length) Assay Kit
- Human Amyloidβ (1-40) (Full-length) Assay Kit
- Human Amyloidβ (1-40) (N-terminal) Assay Kit
- Human Amyloidβ (1-40) Assay Kit
- Human Amyloidβ (1-42) (Full-length) Assay Kit
- Human Amyloidβ (1-42) (N-terminal) Assay Kit
- Human Amyloidβ (1-42) Assay Kit
- Human Amyloidβ (1-43) (Full-length) Assay Kit
- Human Amyloidβ (1-x) Assay Kit
- Human Amyloidβ (N3pE-40) Assay Kit
- Human Amyloidβ (N3pE-42) Assay Kit
- Human Amyloidβ Oligomers (82E1-specific) Assay Kit
- Mouse/Rat Amyloidβ (1-40) High Specific Assay Kit
- Mouse/Rat Amyloidβ (1-42) Assay Kit